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Judean Artifacts

Elliot Toman

Below are eighteen Judean artifacts that clearly demonstrate indigenous Jewish presence in the Land of Israel. All of the pieces below are thousands of years old and confirm ancient Jewish life in the eastern Mediterranean. Michael Lumish


Second Temple Period Inscription in Hebrew

The inscription below, from the Second Temple Period in the 1st century CE, was presented to the public by the Israel Antiquities Authority in October, 2018. It includes the full Hebrew spelling of the word “Jerusalem.” It was discovered near the Jerusalem International Convention Center (Binyanei Ha’Uma).

Arch of Titus – 81 CE

The famous Arch of Titus, celebrating the conquest of Judea, was built by Roman emperor Domitian, brother and successor to Titus, around 81 CE. As we read in the article linked above:

The arch celebrates Titus’s military victories during the First Jewish-Roman War (66–74 C.E.)—when the Romans infamously burned the Temple in Jerusalem. One of the arch’s panels depicts Roman soldiers carrying captured treasures from Jerusalem’s Temple, including a large menorah, through the streets of Rome.

Seal of Biblical King Hezekiah – 8th Century BCE

King Hezekiah lived in the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. As the son of Ahaz, he was the 13th successor of David as King of Judea. His rule is thought to have been from about 715 to 686 BCE.

Magdala Stone – 2nd Temple Period

The Magdala Stone is a large carved stone that dates to the 2nd Temple Period and was unearthed in 2009 on Migdal beach in an archeological dig near the site of a hotel construction. It is the oldest image of a menorah ever discovered. The synagogue in which it was discovered is one of six known synagogues from that period.

The Mother of All Menorahs –  165 CE

This ancient menorah, often referred to as the “Mother of All Menorahs” was discovered in the Cave of Coffins in Beit She’arim and was carved during the time of King Herod. At six feet high and four feet wide, it is among the largest menorahs ever found. After the Bar Kochba revolt (132 -136 CE), Beit She’arim became a center of Torah-learning, as well as a burial ground for important rabbis and their families, since the Romans refused to allow Jewish burials in Jerusalem.

Bar Kochba Coin –  132 to 135 CE

This coin was struck over Roman coinage in use at the time, which became a common practice following the failed Bar Kochba revolt. The coin represents the façade of the Temple before its destruction. It is held in the Israel Museum.

Earliest Proto-Alphabetic Hebrew Text – Late Bronze Age

At only 2 centimeters by 2 centimeters, this tiny “curse tablet” is dated to 1200 BCE. It represents what archaeologist Dr. Scott Stripling claims is the first proto-Alphabetic Hebrew text and includes the first known usage of “YHWH,” the name of God. It was unearthed at Mount Ebal, which Deuteronomy 11:29 describes as a place of curses. It demonstrates that the Israelites were literate when they entered the Land of Israel, led by Joshua.

Ketef Hinnom Scrolls – 600 BC

Gabriel Barkay, archaeology professor at Tel Aviv University, discovered the Ketef Hinnon scrolls in 1979. It is important because it contains the text of Numbers 6:24-26. It represents the oldest testimony of Biblical writings known to exist. It was discovered when Barkay told a young boy to clean one of the caves that he was examining and the child took a hammer to the floor, causing it to collapse beneath him, revealing a hidden tomb within walking distance of Jerusalem.

Yahweh Ṣebaot Inscription – 800 – 750 BCE

The lettering on this artifact is written in “Paleo-Hebrew.” It reads, “Cursed be Hagaf son of Hagab by Yahweh Ṣebaot.” Yahweh Ṣebaot is usually translated as “Lord of Hosts.”

Two Biblical Heroines – Late 4th to Early 5th Century CE

In the ancient Jewish town of Huqoq, just northwest of the Sea of Galilee, archeological teams from the University of North Carolina and Brigham Young University discovered mosaics believed to depict the Biblical heroines Deborah and Jael from the Book of Judges.

Gargilius Antiques – 2 Century CE

Gargilius Antiques was a previous unheard of 12th Governor of the province of Judea sometime between 120 and 130 CE, shortly before the Bar Kochba rebellion. The inscription was discovered in 1948 in the town Dor, about 35 minutes’ drive south of Haifa on the Mediterranean coast. 

Divers working for the University of Haifa discovered the large tablet held the name of Gargilius Antiques and referred specifically to the province of Judea. In November 2016, another inscription, in Greek, was found off the coast of Dor by “underwater archaeologists,” which confirms Antiques’ role in the governorship of the Jewish province.

First Dead Sea Scroll – 3rd Century BCE

The Dead Sea scrolls are, with the possible exception of the Arch of Titus, the most famous Judean artifacts in the world. They were discovered in 1946 to 1947 during the British Mandate. As we read in the link above:

“Manuscripts and other artefacts tell us stories about their own lives and not just about their contents. These artefacts themselves have a tale to tell of why they have been preserved and how they have been copied and annotated. They are more than copies of ancient texts, but silent witnesses to continuing traditions, alive within Judaism, and to the afterlives of ancient works.”

Khirbet Qeiyafa Archeological Site – 1,000 BCE 

Khirbet Qeiyafa is an Iron Age site that is often thought to have been the home of the Biblical Goliath, overlooking the Elah Valley, about thirty kilometers from Jerusalem. The large building at the center is thought by some archeologists to have been a home of King David. Others suggest that it was Philistine land, thus the association with Goliath.

Ancient Hasmonean Coin – 1st Century BCE

This coin was discovered in the home of an east Jerusalemite and dates back to the Antigonus II Mattathias, the last Hasmonean king. Also found was a Hasmonean oil candle and Biblical seal ring with writing in ancient Hebrew.

Ancient Jewish settlement in Israel – 1st Century CE

An ancient Jewish settlement, dating to the period of the Second Temple, was discovered near Beersheva in the Negev Desert. The area contains many subterranean tunnels with hidden supplies to assist local residents in the event of disaster or war. The site also holds a watchtower and an oil lamp with the image of a menorah with nine branches. The settlement thrived until the Bar Kochba revolt of 135 CE.

Judean Pillar Figurines – 800 – 586 BCE

These figurines were common in Judea during the First Temple period but were no longer created after the Babylonian conquest of 586 BCE. As we read in the link above:

Two major types of Judean pillar figurines have been found. One type has a face that’s pinched to make two eyes (Left, Photo: Israel Museum, Jerusalem). The second type has a mold-made head with defined facial features and rows of curly hair (Right, Photo: Metropolitan Museum of Art).

More Hasmonean Coins – 140 BCE to 37 BCE

The Hasmoneans were the descendants of the Maccabees, a group of rebel-fighters who ruled Judea during the Seleucid Empire. The coins were made from bronze and illustrate Jewish presence in ancient Israel.

Ziklag Pottery – 12th to 11th Century BCE 

Ziklag is thought to have been a Philistine city that gave way to an agricultural settlement dating to the time of King David. The site held clay vessels that once held grain, wine, or oil, as well as eating utensils. As we read in the link above:

Furthering the claim that this is Ziklag is the clear evidence of a massive fire, which could confirm the biblical account of the Amalekites burning the city and taking the women and children captive while David and his men were away.

The End of Major Political Parties

Everyone knows that chaos provides a void to be filled. It is high time that classical liberals fill that void once more and establish a new and more just order—yet this requires vanquishing the inequalities so valued by Neo-Marxism and alt-right politics.

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Candace Owens Goes Woke

Candace has shifted the Overton window to accommodate anti-Semitism and, in the process, abandoned one of the most intrinsic conservative values of all: that every individual is a child of God, and thus no one should be discriminated against for immutable characteristics.

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Modern Black Anti-Semitism Rounds Out the Horseshoe

Anti-Semitism found in modern African-American communities ties together the two fringe extremes on the Horseshoe Theory, incorporating ultranationalist, Islamist, and Marxist ideas into its own Replacement Theory.  When people ask me what I think about Kanye West in light of the rapper’s recent anti-Semitic statements, I usually say that I’ve known he was a buffoon…

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Woke Antisemitism

Woke Antisemitism: How a Progressive Ideology Harms Jews: David L. Bernstein Book Review: Michael Lumish David L. Bernstein’s, Woke Antisemitism: How a Progressive Ideology Harms Jews, enamored me as soon as I read the dedication: For all the “thought criminals” and courageous people, Jewish and non-Jewish alike, whose consciences will not allow them to go…

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State of Freedom

A man has found himself between Being alive and being free
He looks his captor in the face
Says “I’ll be buried in my grave. Before you put me in those chains, You can put me in the ground”

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Phantom Fantasia in the Middle East

Sometimes brainwashing can become so uncontested and thoroughly convincing, what’s left after the spin cycle is nothing but falsehood. 

Take the case of the “nation-laundering “of the Palestinian people. Here’s what decades of impeccable PR, global gullibility, and re-imagined anti-Semitism has enabled many to bizarrely believe:

There once was an Arab nation called Palestine, with the people in it known as Palestinians. After the Holocaust (which was either a hoax or exaggeration), the Western powers, duped by scheming Jews, were guilted into creating a Jewish state, fashioned solely from stolen Arab land. 

Israel’s colonial imperialism required a massive population transfer of invaders and settlers. Jews from Europe, America, Canada, and South Africa—all white-skinned with absolutely no connection to the Holy Land—“occupied Palestine.” They formed an army, fortified by advanced weaponry supplied by the West, and then forcibly drove Palestinians from their homes, confiscated their property, and scattered them either to other Arab states or wretched refugee camps. 

An otherwise peaceful people, the Palestinians who remained in the West Bank and Gaza have been relentlessly tormented by Israeli aggression, mistreatment, and, of course, illegal occupation, ever since.

Not a single sentence of that storyline is remotely true. 

There never has been an Arab nation-state called Palestine. At the time of Israel’s founding, in 1948, the word Palestinian did not describe a distinct Arab people. In fact, the word itself was created by the Ancient Romans, and they were referring to Jews, not Arabs.

Jews have been living continuously in what is today Israel since the time of the Jewish patriarchs of the Old Testament and the creation of the first Jewish state – the Kingdom of Judea, which preceded the Ancient Greeks by several hundred years. After the fall of Judea, until Israel was created, the land was occupied by a host of other nations for well over 2,000 years. Ironically, the occupation of “Palestine” ended with the creation of Israel.

And with one million Middle Eastern and Persian Jews forcibly removed to Israel soon after its creation, most Israelis today are actually dark-skinned, indigenous people. But even Jews who were born in Brooklyn or Brentwood have an umbilical, ancestral connection to Israel.

There never has been an Arab nation-state called Palestine. At the time of Israel’s founding, in 1948, the word Palestinian did not describe a distinct Arab people. In fact, the word itself was created by the Ancient Romans, and they were referring to Jews, not Arabs.

The Holocaust did, in fact, result in the mass murder of two-thirds of European Jewry, but the discussions about resurrecting Judea and creating a new Jewish homeland originated decades earlier, during World War I.

Declarations, treaties, resolutions, the League of Nations, and then the United Nations all attested to Israel’s existence. The world was not conned into giving Jews anything more than what was already a claim of right—a country of their own after two millennia of exile, on the same land where Jews first became a people. 

The West did not weaponize Israel against the Arabs. In fact, the West’s reluctance to enflame the Cold War caused it to stay fairly neutral. During its early years battling hostile Arab nations, Israel relied mostly on archaic armaments from Czechoslovakia and France—which were purchased with cash.

Finally, many Arabs living in Israel in 1948 would still be there as full citizens had not five regional nations attacked Israel on its very first day of existence. And certainly no one can credibly refer to the Palestinian people as “peaceful.” We have them to thank for inventing and perfecting the terrorism that plagues us all today. And as for “occupation,” not a single Jew lives in Gaza, and Israel has no legal obligation to withdraw from the West Bank until the border is secure and Palestinian violence is finally abated.

So how did the counter-story of a mythical Palestine—this phantom fantasia—obtain such staying power? It’s not just false—it’s spectacularly false.  And the plain facts are not ancient history. It’s quite easy to verify. There are still people alive from Israel’s founding—Jews and Arabs. There are ample books, newspaper accounts, radio recordings, documentary footage—all setting forth how Israel became a nation, and how the Palestinians, time and again, repeatedly failed to take the necessary steps to become one. Yet, these easily debunked fabrications persist.

It requires the suspension of disbelief aided by the repetition of lies. Palestine is more an idea than an actual place, the magical thinking of a country that never existed. Hocus-pocus political history. The politics of telling a better story, especially one that more people are already predisposed to believe. 

And it’s working.

The United Nations has designated “Palestine” as a permanent non-member state with souped-up observer status. They have their own relief agency, UNRWA, which allows Palestinian-Arabs to remain as refugees in perpetuity, never required, unlike other refugee groups, to fold themselves into another state. The U.N. has accepted the mythology of an unlawfully confiscated Palestinian homeland. No such similar acknowledgment has been granted to the Kurds, Cypriots, Tibetans, and Kashmiri, however. 

Palestine is more an idea than an actual place, the magical thinking of a country that never existed.

Meanwhile, Middle East Studies Departments in universities all across the Western world hype the false narrative of persecuted Palestinians and land-grabbing Jews. The paradox of Palestinian inclusion within the vortex of woke, intersectional grievances is not lost on anyone who has been to college lately. Indeed, it is laughable given how Sharia-observant Palestinians, especially in Gaza, feel about women, gays, the transgender, cultural and academic freedom, religious diversity, free speech, and the rule of law. 

Feminists march alongside theocrats who mandate head coverings and praise beheadings? Homosexuals find common cause with those who would have them flung from rooftops

The “progressives” who have embraced the plight (and overlooked the terrorism) of the Palestinians wouldn’t last a week in Gaza or Ramallah. Tel Aviv, however, would be very much to their liking if they could only get past the presence of so many cosmopolitan Jews.

The U.N. has accepted the mythology of an unlawfully confiscated Palestinian homeland. No such similar acknowledgment has been granted to the Kurds, Cypriots, Tibetans, and Kashmiri, however.

Mainstream media plays its own role in disseminating a one-sided, hopelessly biased account of how Jews came to dominate a Middle East where they don’t belong, and who subjugate a docile and distinct group of Arabs who merely wish a return to their homeland without Jewish malevolence. Palestinian rejectionism of five separate offers of statehood since 1947 is never even a footnote in the “official” account. 

The Charters of Hamas and Fatah are never closely examined, either. If anyone bothered to look, they wouldn’t find anything resembling the Declaration of Independence. The Palestinian contribution to representative democracy, as embodied in their founding documents, are blood libels writ large. So, too, is the chant, “From the river to the sea, Palestine will be free,” an undeniable ode to genocide. A gleeful anticipation of a Jewless Israel. The expressed language of national aspirations foreshadows what pluralism will look like in a Palestinian state. 

It is well known that Palestinian violence is rarely reported. Hamas launches rockets from hospitals and schools indiscriminately; Palestinian children are deployed as human shields. Not newsworthy. Palestinians stab tourists outside the gates in Jerusalem’s Old City. A minor incident, especially if the victims are either Jewish or white. What’s “fit to print” is always reduced to an indictment of Israeli reprisal, which is presented as disproportionate and aimed at civilians. 

Moral clarity gets lost in this fog of twisted perceptions and altered states. Israel wins wars it does not start and rather than set the terms for surrender, global opinion insists that it instantly sue for peace—and then return conquered land. Palestinian attacks on civilians are dismissed as the price Israel should pay for the “Occupation.”

Anti-Semites will accept any story that demonizes Jews. They are forever the world’s scapegoat from which there is no escape. Blamed for its problems. Subjected to its absurd double standards. Always portrayed in a false light. And self-hating Jews are quite comfortable looking unfavorably upon their own people, a life’s mission dedicated to distancing themselves from the tribe. They don’t seem to understand that trying to convince Christians that they are among the “good Jews” is a self-defeating crusade.

Which comes down to this unassailable inflection point: There’s never a shortage of people who will gladly adopt the Palestinian version of events.

Anti-Semites will accept any story that demonizes Jews.

Yet, is there no consequence to these delusions—moral or otherwise? It is the deliberate circulating of an entirely wrong set of facts with no attention paid to truth.

In 2020, the actor Seth Rogen appeared on Marc Maron’s WTF podcast, where he revealed that he was lied to as a child in a Vancouver Hebrew School. Apparently, he was told that no Arabs lived in Israel at the time of its creation, that Britain was overseeing a totally empty piece of land that eventually was awarded to the Jews. Camels, dates, and sand were in abundance—but, improbably, no Arabs. He wanted listeners to know that this inexcusable omission has left him incensed and caused him to reject the idea of a Jewish state altogether.

How can a Jewish person be that ignorant of basic facts, while also casually rejecting the self-determination of his own people? Rogen accused the Zionist movement of conning not just the world, but Jewry itself! The Conflict and all its complexity, simplified by someone who wasn’t paying attention in Hebrew School. The 2,000 years of Jewish wandering, an exile that ended for him in western Canada, is a mere trivial detail in recorded history. 

Let me be clear: If the Arabs of British Mandate Palestine wished to rename themselves “Palestinians,” that is their right. There will always be right-wing Jews who argue that Palestinians are simply Jordanians who want their own country. I am not among them. Like many Jews and Israelis, I accept the reality that Arabs and Jews always lived in the land that is now Israel—which include the disputed territories. There is no dispute about that. But the question of nationhood is equally without dispute: There has never been an Arab, no less Palestinian nation, on Israeli soil. 

The problem is that Palestinians profess to want the land and the title, but they refuse to put in the work necessary to achieve statehood. States are not built on the foundation of hate alone. All those rejected peace offers are telling. It suggests a fear of what it takes to bring about an actual Palestine. Fantasizing about a mythical homeland while seeking to destroy the Jewish one is far more satisfying. 

Palestinians may lack confidence in everything except their disdain for Jews, which is prodigious, but also poisonous. After all, both are descendants of Abraham, a sibling enmity that is as tragic as it has been long-lasting. The Abraham Accords, so aptly named, was regrettably not launched where it was most needed.

There has never been an Arab, no less Palestinian nation, on Israeli soil.

But while Palestinians may be indigenous to the land of Israel, they are wholly disingenuous in presenting themselves as its perpetual victims. Nothing was stolen from them. They are stateless because they never had a state—not because they were denied one, or had one taken away. Indeed, it’s not at all clear whether they actually want one. When your patriotism is inversely related to the death of Zionism, you’re not ready for statehood.

For a people without a country, with no national currency, political history, sustained leadership, defined borders, or even a gross national product aside from terrorism, Palestinians have nonetheless created the illusion of a homeland lost to Jewish land-grabbers. After all those hijacked planes, murdered Olympic athletes, a handicapped man (69-year-old Leon Klinghoffer) tossed overboard from a cruise ship, elderly Parisian grandmothers thrown from balconies, pizza shop and Passover Seder bombings, the Palestinians finally discovered their true calling—the branding of their suffering, and the delegitimizing of the Jewish state. 

If you can’t beat them, defame them.

Palestinian rage is understandable, the bitterness of seeing Israel rise from the sands of the Middle East and in a mere handful of decades, emerge as an economic juggernaut and regional superpower. But that rage is not limited to violence alone. It has been channeled into a secret weapon worthy of TV’s Mad Men – the deploying of Madison Avenue techniques to peddle propaganda. Israel has been outmaneuvered in both the game theory of hasbara and the conspiracy theories of old. 

The case for the Jewish state is a tough sell, always perhaps, but especially these racism-shaming days. Palestinians are invoking Jim Crow but dispensing with passive nonviolent resistance. Sympathy for Jews in this cultural moment is a woke outrage; while criticizing Muslims, even the fanatically murderous variety, is categorically taboo. 

Will this new marketing strategy continue to succeed? Hard to tell. Palestinian petulance has always been rewarded. And there’s no Iron Dome for global revulsion. Yet, with the normalizing of relations with Israel, Gulf nations have seemingly withdrawn from the Palestinians, favoring a more profitable trading partner, instead. Angry Arabs can be tiresome. And hate does not a nation make. 

Palestinians have rejected peace offers that would have given them 97 percent of what they had ostensibly asked for. It’s what they can’t respectably ask for that is the real problem: dead Jews.

Palestinianism is the Natural Front for Islamism

No single idea has given Islamist movements more return on their radicalization investment than “Palestinianism” and the marriage of that national identity movement with Islamism and HAMAS.

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Now It All Makes Sense: ‘Palestine’ as Keystone

The word “Palestine” has become wildly mythologized, has come to fairly drip with classic anti-Semitic associations, generally unrecognized as such.

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A Genealogy of the Idea of ‘Palestine’

Despite Arab claims to the contrary, contemporary “Palestinians” have no historical connection to either the land conquered by the Philistines, nor Canaan more generally, as their forbearers largely remained within the Arabian Peninsula until shortly after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE.

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The Silver Platter

…And the land will grow still
Crimson skies dimming, misting
Slowly paling again
Over smoking frontiers

As the nation stands up
Torn at heart but existing
To receive its first wonder
In two thousand years

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Palestinianism as Counter-Myth + Islamist Cloak

The truest thing that can be said about Palestinianism is this: if not for Zionism, Palestinianism would not exist—namely, the reconstitution of the national home of the Jewish people. And where Zionism is the spontaneous national liberation movement of a people whose connection to the land predates antiquity and modernity alike, Palestinianism was imposed upon Arabs who resided in what was once the colony of Palestine.

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Three Recent Events Exemplify a Century of Extremist Leadership + Racist Lies

As long as the most “moderate” of Palestinian Arab leaders engage in Holocaust denial; promote anti-Semitic canards; and deny any Jewish historical connection to the land of Israel—all while they praise and reward the murder of Jews—peace is simply not possible.

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Biden, the ‘Palestinians,’ + the Taylor Force Act

Vanderbilt graduate student Taylor Force was killed March 9, 2016, in a terror attack in Tel Aviv- Jaffa. Recently President Biden made a trip to the Middle East to visit both Israel and Saudi Arabia. In truth, the stop-off in Israel probably wasn’t meant to accomplish much, but Biden was forced to make sure he…

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The Fundamental Irrationality of Palestinianism

If one is willing to suspend factual analysis, then one can maintain the blissful ignorance required to support the “Palestinian” cause while being against colonialism. If one is educated in the actual history, suddenly the house of cards topples, usually in a pretty spectacular fashion.

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Israel + the Western Left

One of the most dramatic political shifts that occurred during the latter half of the 20th century was the change in the attitude of the Western left towards the Arab-Israeli conflict, and their near universal adoption of the Palestinian-Arab narrative, particularly their claim to perpetual victimhood, complete purity, and total righteousness.

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Palestinianism: an Ideology + an Identity

Palestinianism as an ideology is in a certain way like Marxism or Scientology. When Palestinianists are confronted with clear-cut facts (like the historical and archaeological evidence of the presence of Jews in the land for thousands of years), they nevertheless find it possible to deny or ignore them.

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BDS on Campus

professors are openly voicing their thoughts on Israel, using their positions to become political advocates and shame Israel and students who support it. This creates an environment of fear and suppression, where students cannot voice their own opinions due to their grades taking a severe hit or being ostracized and labeled as racist and complicit in genocide.

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A Letter to the World

I owe you nothing. You did not build this city, you did not live in it, you did not defend it when they came to destroy it. And we will be damned if we will let you take it away.

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Defunding the Police Harms Black Victims of Domestic Violence

For all of those proudly chanting “defund the police” I have one question: Who do you want to respond when a victim is locked in her bathroom, trying to escape her abuser? Who should show up at her home when her abuser has a loaded gun and is threatening to shoot her?

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